Neonatology is a subspecialty of pediatrics concerned with the treatment and care of disorders in newborn babies.
Normally, birth takes place between 37 and 42 weeks of gestation. However, in some cases the baby is born prior to these 37 weeks of gestation. In this setting the baby is considered preterm.
As their organs are not yet fully developed, they often need extra care and therapy. For many years, Chiesi has been collaborating with neonatologists around the world to find the optimal care for these babies.
Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS)
Respiratory Distress Syndrome is a common breathing disorder that affects newborns and especially preterm newborns due to an under-development of the respiratory system. The condition makes it hard for the baby to breath. 
This respiratory failure is linked to a shortage of pulmonary surfactant, a compound that helps the lungs to expand and avoid collapse during expiratory phases. Lack of surfactant results in breathing difficulty, low oxygenation and the need for respiratory support. 
Treatment options for RDS are respiratory support and in many cases surfactant replacement therapy. The aim of these interventions in the newborn is to minimize the invasiveness of the intervention to enhance the changes on survival with minimal sequelae. ,
 Blencowe et al. Reprod Health. 2013; 10(Suppl 1): S2.
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 Sweet D et al. Neonatology 2019;115:432–450